New York State Assembly

1998 Annual Report

Committee on Transportation

Sheldon Silver, Speaker
David F. Gantt, Chairman

Assemblyman 133rdDistrict

Transportation Committee


Commerce, Industry and
Economic Development
Corporations, Authorities and
Local Governments
Ways and Means

Voter Registration
Affordable Housing

Neighborhood Preservation

Legislative Commission on
State and Local Relations

December 15, 1998

Honorable Sheldon Silver
Speaker of the New York State Assembly
Room 932, Legislative Office Building
Albany, NY 12248

Dear Mr. Speaker:

     I am pleased to submit to you the 1998 Annual Report of the Assembly Standing Committee on Transportation.

     During the 1998 Legislative Session, the Committee considered a number of important bills enhancing the safety of the transportation system, affecting the motoring and the non-motoring public, promoting other modes of transportation, and improving disabled access.

     Problems presented by the operation of uninsured motor vehicles continue to plague the users of streets and highways across the State. Uninsured operation can lead to higher insurance premiums for persons who comply with statutory insurance requirements, and can impose personal injury and financial loss on innocent victims involved in crashes with such vehicles. Building on legislation enacted in 1997, the Committee moved legislation to clarify provisions concerning the reporting by insurance companies of new policy issuances, the establishment of electronic reporting, and a study of the feasibility of an instant on-line insurance registry at DMV.

    Protecting children from motor-vehicle-related injuries and deaths is one of the Committee's priorities. During 1998, the Committee was successful in obtaining the enactment of legislation to enhance the safety of children purchasing ice cream from ice cream trucks, and to clarify requirements for the placement of telephone numbers on the rear of school buses. The Committee also advanced legislation to increase the age of persons required to wear seat belts in the rear seats of motor vehicles.

   In addition, the Committee reported legislation to establish a system of graduated licensing for young drivers in New York State, to ease them toward full driving privileges. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for 15 to 20 year olds, according to the most recently-available statistics. The fatality rate for teenage drivers (16 to 19 years old) is about four times as high as that for drivers aged 25 through 69 years.

    While New York State has been very successful in reducing the carnage caused by drunk driving crashes, further efforts are necessary to continue New York's record of success. The Committee oversaw the enactment of legislation to prohibit the operation of motor vehicles while its occupants have open containers of alcoholic beverages, and requiring DMV to make a note on the drivers' licenses of persons required to have an ignition interlock device on any vehicle they operate. The Committee also moved legislation to allow for the suspension of the driver's license of any person convicted of boating while intoxicated, and requiring the suspension of boating privileges upon a conviction for DWI. The Committee also advanced legislation to lower the per se level for DWI from .10% to .08% and to establish standards for the assessment and treatment of alcohol or substance abuse by persons convicted of alcohol-related driving offenses.

     As Chair of the Assembly Transportation Committee, I was very honored and pleased to have participated in the historic Legislative conference committee process for the enactment of a State budget.  I am hopeful that the precedent set during this past Legislative Session leads to a similar process in future budget negotiations.

     I would like to take this opportunity to thank the members of the Committee for their support of and contributions to this year's legislative efforts. I also wish to express my gratitude to the staff for their dedication and hard work.

    Mr. Speaker, on behalf of the members of the Committee, I would like to thank you for your encouragement and support of our efforts throughout the 1998 Session. With your continued leadership, we look forward to a productive 1999 Legislative Session.


David F. Gantt, Chairman
Assembly Committee on Transportation



David F. Gantt, Chairman


Committee Members



Ivan C. Lafayette

Patricia K. McGee

Paul Tonko

Ranking Minority Member

Paul Tokasz

Thomas F. Barraga

Robert Sweeney

John J. Bonacic

Ronald J. Canestrari

David Townsend

Harvey Weisenberg

Marc Herbst

Alexander Gromack

Pat M. Casale

Joseph Robach

Thomas J. Kirwan

Sam Hoyt

Naomi Matusow

N. Nick Perry

Darryl Towns

Brian M. McLaughlin

Audrey Hochberg

Richard A. Smith


Terri B. Crowley, Principal Legislative Coordinator
Julie A. Barney, Principal Analyst
Robert Scott Gaddy, Counsel to the Chairman
Steven Paquette, Counsel
Jennifer Wheeler, Committee Clerk
Crystal Moore, Graduate Scholar
Shannel Arrington, Program and Counsel Secretary
Josie Huba, Program and Counsel Secretary


I. Introduction and Summary

A. Committee Jurisdiction

B. Summary of Committee Action

II. 1998 Legislative Action

A. Traffic Safety -- DWI

B. Traffic Safety -- General

C. Disabled Access

D. Railroads

E. Department of Transportation

F. Department of Motor Vehicles

III. Public Hearings

IV. Outlook for 1999





I. Introduction and Summary

A. Committee Jurisdiction

New York State's transportation system consists of a State and local highway system of approximately 115,000 miles of highways, over which 109 billion vehicle miles are driven annually; almost 20,000 bridges; 4,600 miles of railroads; 600 public and private aviation facilities, providing service to at least 60 million people annually; 12 major public and private ports, handling more than 100 million tons of freight each year; 4,600 miles of railroads, moving 42 million tons of freight annually and 7.8 million trips on Amtrak; and, a public transit and commuter rail system, carrying at least 1.9 billion passengers annually. The Assembly Transportation Committee is charged with the responsibility of advancing policies coordinating the management of these systems and ensuring the employment of measures designed to provide and encourage safe travel. The Committee also is responsible for developing and reviewing legislation covering a wide range of topics affecting the movement of people and goods throughout the State.

The Committee's jurisdiction includes the Departments of Transportation (DOT) and Motor Vehicles (DMV), the New York State Thruway Authority, and various regional transportation authorities and commissions. Committee action primarily affects the following consolidated laws: Vehicle and Traffic; Highway; Transportation; Navigation; and, Railroad.

B. Summary of Committee Action

During the 1998 Legislative Session, the Committee acted upon numerous legislative proposals which were ultimately enacted into law, including measures to protect young children purchasing ice cream from ice cream trucks; increasing penalties for commercial vehicles operating illegally on parkways; reducing motor vehicle registration fees on farm vehicles transporting horticultural products; prohibiting the possession of open containers of alcoholic beverages in moving vehicles; authorizing the transfer of motor vehicles from auto dealers to welfare-to-work programs; facilitating the removal of underground fuel storage tanks by municipal airports; and clarifying provisions relating to DMV's computerized database of motor vehicle insurance.

The Committee also reviewed and advanced legislation to: further strengthen efforts to reduce DWI and BWI; establish a High Speed Rail Commission to facilitate rail improvements necessary to promote the implementation of high speed rail in the State; enhance the safety of the streets and highways for senior drivers and pedestrians; improve occupant protection measures for persons under age 16; and, authorize reviews of drivers' records due to diagnosed medical impairments.

The Committee conducted two public hearings during the 1998 Legislative Session. The first, on the issue of aggressive driving, provided the Committee with the opportunity to solicit testimony regarding the nature and scope of aggressive driving and options to address it appropriately. The second hearing concerned the issue of DWI, to gather information and testimony regarding proposals to lower New York State's blood alcohol content (BAC) level from .10% to 0.08% for a per se DWI violation.

II. 1998 Legislative Action

A. Traffic Safety -- DWI

New York State has been very successful in reducing alcohol-related crashes on streets and highways across the State; in 1995 there were 54% fewer alcohol-related crashes than in 1980. Additionally, the overall fatality rate for motor-vehicle crashes in New York State reached a historic low in 1996 of 1.34 deaths per 100 million vehicle miles traveled.

In an effort to augment the significant progress made, the Assembly Transportation Committee has advanced a number of anti-DWI measures.

Open Container Prohibition

(A.5506-A, Hochberg; Chapter 153, Laws of 1998)

Prior to the enactment of this measure, the Vehicle and Traffic Law prohibited motor vehicle drivers and passengers from drinking alcoholic beverages in a motor vehicle driven on the public highways. Therefore, unless a police officer observed a driver or passenger actually drinking an alcoholic beverage, it would be difficult to prove a violation only from the presence of a container holding an alcoholic beverage.

Chapter 153 of the Laws of 1998 amends the Vehicle and Traffic Law to prohibit any occupant of a motor vehicle being operated on a public highway from possessing, with intent to consume, an open container containing an alcoholic beverage.

Ignition Interlock

(A.1495-B, Bragman; Chapter 359, Laws of 1998)

The Ignition Interlock Program was established in 1988 to deter repeat drinking and driving violations. Originally, the law authorized seven counties across New York State to engage in a pilot project regarding the usage and effectiveness of ignition interlock devices in deterring driving after drinking (Chapter 713, Laws of 1998). Courts in these counties are allowed to require persons sentenced to probation following a DWI conviction to install and maintain a functioning ignition interlock device to prevent the vehicle from starting if the operator has an unacceptable blood alcohol content level.

Chapter 168 of the Laws of 1995 authorized courts outside the seven pilot counties to require ignition interlock installation as a condition of probation for a DWI conviction. However, DMV was not required to note this condition on the drivers' licenses of persons sentenced in these non-pilot counties. When such a person was subsequently detained by a police officer for an alleged traffic infraction, the police officer would have no way to know whether such person was in violation of probation.

Assembly bill 1495-B, enacted as Chapter 359 of the Laws of 1998, requires the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles to note upon a license whether an ignition interlock device was imposed upon a licensee as a condition of probation. This should facilitate the apprehension of persons violating the terms of probation by failing to install or maintain an ignition interlock device.

Boating While Intoxicated / Driving While Intoxicated

(A.5285-A, Schimminger; Passed Assembly)

According to 1996 statistics from the NYS Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation (OPRHP), alcohol involvement in boating accidents in New York State appears to be low (a little over 7%). However, there are a number of accidents (16%) in which the involvement of alcohol is unknown. Furthermore, boating accidents involving alcohol account for at significant number of boating fatalities (17% to 43% of the total number). OPRHP has stated that it is possible that these statistics are incomplete, because many accidents are reported to the police after the fact, some are never reported, and some are reported but omit the fact of alcohol involvement.

While New York State has done a good job of cracking down on boaters who illegally mix alcohol with boat operation, more remains to be done. One problem that exists is the current lack of connection between driving while intoxicated and boating while intoxicated. Individuals whose drivers' licenses are suspended or revoked are not barred from legally operating a boat, nor are persons whose boating privileges are suspended or revoked barred from legally operating a motor vehicle. Both types of vehicles are equally dangerous when handled unsafely.

Assembly bill 5285-A would require courts to suspend a person's privilege to operate a vessel following a conviction for DWI or DWAI by alcohol or drugs, for the following periods: 90 days, for a DWAI by alcohol conviction; 180 days for a DWI/DWAI by drugs conviction; and, 1 year for a repeat DWI/DWAI by drugs conviction within 10 years of a prior conviction.

This legislation also would allow courts to suspend a person's driver's license following a conviction for boating while intoxicated (BWI) or boating while ability impaired (BWAI) by alcohol or drugs, for the following periods: 45 days for a BWAI by alcohol conviction where the violation resulted in the death or serious physical injury of another person, or a repeat BWAI by alcohol conviction within 10 years of a prior conviction; and, 90 days for a BWI or BWAI by drugs conviction where the violation resulted in the death or serious physical injury of another person, or a repeat BWI or BWAI by drugs conviction within 10 years of a prior conviction.

STOP-DWI Fine Money

(A.8065, Bragman; Passed Assembly)

The "Special Traffic Options Program for Driving While Intoxicated" (STOP-DWI), enacted in 1981, authorizes each of the State's 62 counties to establish a STOP-DWI Program to address alcohol and highway safety issues within each county. The establishment of such programs qualifies each county to receive almost all of the fine moneys collected for alcohol and other drug-related traffic offenses occurring within its jurisdiction.

The statute requires that each program provide a plan for coordinating county, town, city and village efforts to reduce alcohol-related traffic injuries and fatalities. These efforts usually include programs relating to enforcement, prosecution, probation, rehabilitation, public information and education, and program administration. STOP-DWI has proven to be very successful in the reduction of alcohol and drug-related traffic offenses. Because it is a local option, each county is able to tailor its program to respond to its particular needs and situation.

With one exception, all fine monies received by courts for offenses relating to alcohol or drug-related traffic offenses are remitted to the county in which the offense occurred for its STOP-DWI program. The remaining exception concerns fine monies assessed for violating the conditions of a conditional use license. A conditional use license is issued to a person convicted of a DWI offense upon successful completion of an approved alcohol and drug rehabilitation program. Such license allows an individual whose driver's license was suspended or revoked for a DWI offense to drive under limited circumstances (including to and from work, school, court-ordered probation activities, medical treatment, etc.)

Assembly bill 8065 (Bragman) would direct the fines assessed for driving a vehicle for purposes other than those allowed by a conditional use license to the appropriate county's STOP-DWI program. Allocation of these fine monies to the Stop-DWI programs will further aid local efforts to combat drunk driving.

B. Traffic Safety -- General

Uninsured Motor Vehicles

(A.11373, Rules/Lafayette; Chapter 509, Laws of 1998)

The New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law prohibits the registration of any vehicle which is not covered by a minimum level of liability insurance or other accepted forms of financial security. In enacting this law, the Legislature sought to address its concern over the rising toll of motor vehicle accidents and the resulting suffering and loss. The Legislature determined that "motorists should be financially able to respond in damages for their negligent acts, so that innocent victims of motor vehicle accidents may be recompensed for the injury and financial loss inflicted upon them."

Prior to the enactment of Chapter 678 of the Laws of 1997, the only proof of insurance which motorists were required to produce was a certificate of insurance, sometimes referred to as the insurance "card." Production of a copy of this "card" was necessary to obtain a motor vehicle registration. When insurance companies decided to cancel a policy or not renew it, the law required them to notify DMV, whereupon DMV sought proof from the registrant either that a replacement policy was in effect, or that the vehicle's registration had been terminated. This process was time-consuming, and in the meantime, motorists could operate uninsured vehicles.

To address this problem, the Legislature in 1997 enacted Chapter 678, which requires insurance companies to report policy issuances to DMV, and authorizes DMV to provide for proof of insurance either by paper copy or electronically. The bill also established a pilot program for DMV to maintain an up-to-date insured vehicle identification database, including the use of computer bar codes to allow police officers to check the insured status of motor vehicles. Finally, Chapter 678 called for DMV and the Insurance Department to convene an advisory panel to examine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of developing an instant on-line registry of insurance, in order to identify uninsured motor vehicles. The panel was directed to forward recommendations to the Governor and the Legislature within nine months of the effective date of Chapter 678.

During the 1998 Legislative Session, the Legislature enacted Assembly bill 11373 (Rules/Lafayette; Chapter 509, Laws of 1998) which amends Chapter 678. Chapter 509 reduced the time period within which insurance companies are required to report changes in policy status to DMV from 30 days to 14 days, and further reduced to seven days for policies effective after January 1, 2001. Chapter 509 also: replaced the statutory requirement for the use of computer bar codes with a computer "indicator" system; adjusted the privacy requirements to reflect the Federal Driver's Privacy Protection Act; and, replaced the task force regarding an instant on-line registry with a requirement for DMV and the Insurance Department to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of such a system and, after conferring with the insurance industry, computer technicians and general public, make recommendations to the Governor and the Legislature. The new law also established penalties for insurance companies which fail to comply with reporting requirements.

Ice Cream Trucks

(A.8815-B, DiNapoli; Chapter 267, Laws of 1998)

Despite State laws and regulations concerning the equipment and operation of ice cream trucks selling confections directly to customers, traffic accidents have continued to result in fatal injuries to children who had purchased ice cream from such a truck. The Vehicle and Traffic Law had prohibited vending on any street with a speed limit higher than 35 miles per hour, and had directed the Commissioner of DMV to prescribe rules and regulations prescribing appropriate cautionary devices to be affixed to such vehicles.

To help prevent future tragedies, the Assembly this year proposed legislation to tighten the requirements for the sale of ice cream products from ice cream trucks. Assembly bill 8815-B (DiNapoli), enacted as Chapter 267, prohibits sales on streets with speeds lower than 30 miles per hour. The new law also prohibits such trucks from backing up to make a sale, or from making a sale unless all of the following conditions are met: the truck is legally parked or stopped, the sale occurs on the side of the vehicle away from moving traffic and as near as possible to the curb or shoulder, and the customer is not standing in the roadway.

Finally, the new law directs the Commissioner of the Department of Motor Vehicles to review existing rules and regulations regarding the effectiveness of existing ice cream truck cautionary devices in preventing motor vehicle and pedestrian accidents and make any recommended changes by June 30, 1999. The new law also directs the Commissioner to study the use of stop-arms, safety arms, lights, caution beepers, convex mirrors and flashing amber lights, as well as the effect of requiring motor vehicles to stop for ice cream trucks, on further reducing such accidents.

School Bus Identification

(A.9915, Gromack; Chapter 94, Laws of 1998)

In an effort to promote safety in the transportation of children by school bus, the Legislature enacted Chapter 318 of the Laws of 1997 to require the placement of the telephone number of the owner and/or operator of a school bus on the left rear of the vehicle, in three inch bold type. This requirement applies only to buses purchased, leased or acquired on or after September 1, 1997, although the law does not prohibit the printing of such information on buses purchased, leased or acquired prior to that date.

There was some confusion, however, as to whether the "telephone number" required by statute included the area code. Additionally, school bus owners and operators expressed concern about their difficulties in placing the required number on the left rear of the vehicle due to the placement of vehicle lights, doors, and other equipment. The Legislature, therefore, amended Chapter 318 to clarify that the phrase "telephone number" does include the area code, and to allow the telephone number to be placed anywhere on the rear of the vehicle. The Legislature anticipates that these changes will bolster compliance with the law, thereby enhancing the safety of schoolchildren.

School Bus Advertising

(A.8028, Rules/Bragman; Passed Assembly)

A provision in the New York State Code of Rules and Regulations currently allows the placement of advertising on the right-hand side of a school bus. The placard is limited to 12 square feet, and the frame cannot have sharp edges nor support someone attempting to hitch a ride. The content of the placard, which must be approved by the Governor's Traffic Safety Committee, must have a highway safety theme; additionally, corporate sponsorship may be included.

Concerns have been raised that placing advertising on school buses presents a significant potential safety hazard for the student passengers. The "yellow school bus" is easily recognized on the streets and highways, and advertising can distract the attention of both the children passengers and passing motorists. While there is no data to unequivocally prove that school bus advertising causes accidents, studies have shown that as much as 4% of all motor vehicle tow-away crashes are caused by driver distraction by something outside their vehicle.

According to the New York Association for Pupil Transportation, which opposes school bus advertising, advertising compromises the safety of the students who ride school buses because it distracts their focus from safe procedures when approaching or boarding a bus; and, it presents signage hardware that a child could reach for, or be caught on or struck by. Also, the National Association of State Directors of Pupil Transportation Services does not endorse advertising on the exterior of school buses, because the potential increase to driver distraction presents a safety problem around school buses.

Assembly bill 8028, which passed the Assembly, would prohibit the placement of signs, placards or displays on school buses. This bill did not pass in the Senate.

Graduated Drivers' Licenses

(A.6968-A, Glick; Reported from Assembly Transportation Committee)

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for 15 to 20 year olds. The fatality rate for teenage drivers (16 to 19 years old) is about four times as high as that for drivers aged 25 through 69 years. In an effort to reduce the number of persons injured and killed in crashes involving young drivers, various jurisdictions have enacted forms of "graduated" driver licensing. These systems are designed to phase in young beginning drivers to full driving privileges as they develop their driving skills.

The Committee reported A.6768-A (Glick), which contained a number of provisions to better-prepare young beginning drivers for the driving experience. The bill would require persons with learners' permits to hold the permit for six months before becoming eligible to take the road test. The bill also would extend the probationary period by six months if the holder of the learner's permit was convicted of a serious traffic infraction during the probationary period. Additionally, the bill would raise the required age of the supervisory driver from 18 to 21 years, require all passengers in a vehicle driven by a holder of a learner's permit or junior driver's license to wear seat belts, and require the parent or guardian to certify that an applicant for a junior driver's license had operated a motor vehicle under supervision for at least 30 hours.

While the bill did not advance beyond the Codes Committee this Session, the Committee will continue to work on the issue during the upcoming Session.

Seat Belts in Passenger Vehicles

(A.3080, Glick; Passed Assembly)

New York State's seat belt law prohibits the operation of a motor vehicle unless all front seat passengers under the age of 16 years are restrained by seat belts or child safety seats, and unless all back seat passengers under the age of 10 years are restrained by seat belts or child safety seats. Therefore, children over the age of 10 years could be unprotected if they ride in the rear seat.

In 1993, nearly 50 percent of the young children who died in traffic crashes were unrestrained. Among passenger vehicle occupants over the age of four years, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that safety belts saved an estimated 10,750 lives in 1997. To enhance the safety of children riding in motor vehicles, the Assembly passed legislation (A.3080) to prohibit the operation of any motor vehicle unless all back seat passengers under the age of 16 are properly restrained. The Senate did not pass this bill.

Commercial Vehicles and Highway Safety

(A.5744-A, Hochberg; Passed Assembly)

Pursuant to the authorization granted by various provisions of the Vehicle and Traffic Law, a number of State and local agencies and authorities have prohibited, restricted or regulated the operation of vehicles on controlled-access highways, parkways, and other highway facilities under their jurisdiction. This is usually necessary because some facilities' infrastructure is not equipped to handle larger commercial vehicles; for example, bridge clearances may not accommodate larger trucks. Unfortunately, some drivers of the prohibited or restricted vehicles operate in violation of the restrictions.

Assembly bill 5744-A would increase the maximum penalties for the operation of commercial motor vehicles on parkways, highways and bridges on which they are prohibited from traveling, from $100 to $500 for a first violation, from $200 to $750 for a second violation within 18 months, and from $300 to $1,000 for a third or subsequent violation within 18 months. "Commercial motor vehicles" would include only those vehicles for which a commercial driver's license is required.

Senior Driver and Pedestrian Safety

(A.5877-C, Tonko; Passed Assembly)

Improving the safety of highway users of all ages is an important goal for traffic safety professionals. Statistics have indicated that older drivers could be at a disproportionate risk for becoming involved in fatal crashes. Nationally, in 1997 older individuals accounted for: 5% of all people injured in traffic crashes; 14% of all traffic fatalities; 13% of all vehicle occupant fatalities; and, 17% of all pedestrian fatalities. In addition, in two-vehicle crashes involving an older and a younger driver, it is nearly 3 times as likely that the vehicle driven by the older person will be the vehicle which is struck.

Census figures project that New York State's population aged 65 and over will top three million by the year 2020 -- a 27% increase over the state's 1993 65+ population of almost 2.4 million. As New York's population ages, there should be continued efforts to address the mobility needs of these drivers and pedestrians. Some individuals make their own adjustments; for instance, many drivers limit their driving to daylight and/or off-peak traffic hours, familiar roads, shorter trips, and roads posted with lower speed limits. There are a number of technological and engineering advances that could enhance driving and pedestrian safety as well.

Assembly bill 5877-C would direct DMV, in consultation with DOT, the Office for the Aging, the State Police, and other appropriate groups, to develop an older highway users' assistance plan. This plan would consist of both an assessment report and a recommendations report concerning the identification and implementation of highway improvements and enhancements for making road travel safer and easier for senior drivers and pedestrians. The legislation would direct the agencies to consider a number of issues, including improved traffic control devices; roadway design improvement; pedestrian crossing design enhancements; alternatives to driving, especially in rural areas; identification of highway limitations; and, strategies for improving senior driving behaviors.

C. Disabled Access

Parking Spaces

(A.2886-B, Glick; Passed Assembly)

Current law requires persons, firms or corporations owning a shopping center or facility with at least five separate retail stores and at least 20 off-street parking spaces for use by the shopping public to designate, for exclusive use by the disabled, a minimum of 5% or ten spaces, whichever is less. In a further effort to improve access by the disabled, the Assembly passed legislation to increase the number of facilities required to designate parking spaces for disabled use. By July 1, 1999, facilities with at least three separate retail stores and 20 off-street parking spaces for use by the shopping public would have to designate disabled parking spaces. This law would require facilities with one retail store to so designate by July 1, 2001.

Rental Vehicle Access

(A.4178, DiNapoli; Passed Assembly)

While several large vehicle rental agencies offer the option of portable, temporarily installed hand controls or other mechanical devices to allow a vehicle's use by the disabled, this option generally is available only on medium and/or high price category vehicles. Assembly bill 4178 would require car rental companies with fleets of 100 or more vehicles to offer, at no additional charge, portable hand controls or other mechanical devices for use by disabled persons on all price or size categories of vehicles. If a class of vehicle is requested which is unable to accommodate the controls or devices, the rental company would be required to provide a vehicle that could, at a rate equal to that of the vehicle requested. The law would allow companies to require 48 hours prior notice.

D. Railroads

Railroad Bridge Inspection

(A.7756-D, Gantt; Chapter 455, Laws of 1998)

The Legislature enacted Chapter 642 of the Laws of 1994 to ensure the safety of railroad bridges across the State and to expedite the inspection of certain highway bridges. Chapter 642 authorized the Commissioner of DOT to enter railroad rights-of-way to inspect highway bridges, and established a railroad bridge inspection program. This program required the creation of an inventory of all railroad bridges across the State, and inspection of all such bridges.

The Legislature instituted changes in this program with the enactment of Chapter 455 of the Laws of 1998, in response to concerns from the railroad industry about difficulties in complying with the existing program. The new law modifies the railroad bridge inspection program in a number of ways, including authorizing technicians, rather than licensed professional engineers (Pes), to conduct the inspections. The law would require that the technicians' reports be of sufficient detail so as to allow licensed Pes to evaluate bridge capacity and safety. Chapter 455 also requires railroads to certify annually to DOT the following: that each bridge for which it is responsible has been inspected in accordance with bridge management inspection procedures; that every structure is safe for the loadings imposed; and, advising DOT of any change affecting safety since the previous year's filing.

The new law also requires railroads to develop and submit to DOT written bridge management and inspection procedures, developed under the supervision of a licensed PE. Such standards would have to be consistent with generally accepted railway engineering standards and procedures for railroad bridge inspections, be in conformance with DOT standards, and contain a reporting format. Finally, the new law extends the date by which passenger rail bridges would have to be inspected to January 1, 1999, the date by which certification must be submitted to DOT to March 15, 1999, and the date by which all other railroad bridges would have to be inspected to July 1, 1999.

High Speed Rail

(A.10373-A, Hoyt, Passed Assembly)

Intercity passenger rail service corridors in New York State and throughout the Northeast provide service to approximately 25% of all Amtrak riders nationally. Rail service benefits the State and local economies by safely and efficiently transporting passengers who otherwise would have to drive a car, take a bus, or fly. To thoroughly compete with other modes of transportation, however, the passenger rail industry needs to move forward in implementing high speed rail service.

High speed passenger rail provides a convenient, safe, and cost-effective transportation option than can improve mobility, promote economic development, reduce congestion, and improve air quality across the State. A Marist Institute public opinion poll conducted for the Empire Corridor Rail Task Force and the Empire State Passengers Association found that 97% of New York State registered voters think that intercity passenger train service should be improved and modernized. The same poll found that 87% of registered voters support the State using more money to improve intercity passenger service.

A rational planning process needs to be put in place in order to maximize the potential benefits of high speed rail. Therefore, the Assembly passed A.10373-A (Hoyt), which would establish a high speed rail commission to examine, evaluate, and make recommendations concerning a number of high speed rail issues.

These issues include the benefits of improving service on the Empire Corridor (the rail corridor connecting New York City with Buffalo, New York); electrification of all or part of the Empire Corridor; upgrading of existing rights-of-way; station improvements; bus connections to serve communities off the Corridor; and commuter service in the upstate cities.

The commission would ultimately provide an independently-audited, sound business plan for the development of high speed rail along the Empire Corridor. The commission also would be charged with creating a detailed plan for the upgrading or replacement of the current rail right-of-way along the Corridor; recommendations for implementation of the business and right-of-way upgrade plans; and reporting on the business plan's affect on commuter rail, the economy, job creation and tourism efforts. The Senate did not act upon this legislation.

Railroad Trespass

(A.8614-A, Rules/Morelle; Chapter 428, Laws of 1998)

According to the Federal Railroad Administration's Office of Safety Analysis, New York State ranks fourth highest among the states in fatal and non-fatal injuries arising from trespassing on railroad facilities, for the years 1993 - 1998. Trespass injuries account for only 3.1% of all railroad injuries sustained within the State of New York during this period; however, certain areas of the State recently have seen a number of fatal and serious injuries arising from individuals trespassing on railroad property.

The Legislature enacted Chapter 338 of the Laws of 1997 in response to railroad trespass accidents occurring in the New York metropolitan area. This Chapter authorized the City of New York and the counties of Nassau and Suffolk to adopt local laws designating railroad properties as a "no-trespass railroad zone," providing for conspicuous posting for the establishment of criminal liability for trespassing in such zones.

At least two individuals recently were killed in Monroe County while they were on a railroad bridge. Therefore, the Legislature enacted Chapter 428 of the Laws of 1998 to extend the authorization provided by Chapter 338 to Monroe County. The Legislature anticipates that, when combined with a coordinated approach including increased education, this new law will improve the safety of individuals around railroad facilities in Monroe County.

E. Department of Transportation

Airport Underground Fuel Storage Tank Removal

(A.8186-A, Rules/Perry; Chapter 161, Laws of 1998)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the removal of underground fuel tanks that do not meet EPA standards by 1998. Approximately 28 municipal airports in New York State have underground fuel tanks that do not meet EPA standards. Failure to comply with underground storage tank requirements and proper notification can result in penalties as high as $25,000 and $10,000 per day, respectively.

The removal of fuel tanks is a very specialized type of work and can be environmentally sensitive. The scope of the environmental work associated with these projects cannot be fully ascertained until they are begun. To assist airports in complying with the EPA requirements, the Legislature enacted legislation in 1995 (Chapter 444) to allow municipal airports to contract directly with the Office of General Services for such removal of fuel storage tanks, if such airports have projects to remove fuel storage tanks funded pursuant to the Airport Preservation Program or the Special Rail and Aviation Transportation Program.

Chapter 161 of the Laws of 1998 authorizes any airport with any type of project funded through either the State Airport Preservation Program or the Special Rail and Aviation Program to contract, with DOT approval, directly with the Office of General Services (OGS) to participate in the OGS contract for the removal of fuel storage tanks. The law also provides for the deposit of airport funds with the State Comptroller, for expenditure on project costs.

Local Mandate Relief; Single Audit Pilot Program

(A.10914, Rules/Gantt; Chapter 279, Laws of 1998)

The federal Single Audit Act of 1984, as amended in 1997, provides audit coverage for direct-aid and pass-through federal funds expended by municipalities and public authorities through an annual single audit. Thus, a municipality using federal funds for a variety of purposes would only be subject to one audit during the year covering all its federally funded programs and projects. The federal agencies that administer the various programs the audit covers may not impose additional audit requirements. The act was intended to make the auditing process less time-consuming and onerous on the municipality and to promote efficient and effective use of federal audit resources.

Although the federal Single Audit Act encourages cooperative state/federal audit efforts, it does not provide audit assurance on state funds or compliance with state laws, rules, regulations or agreement provisions.

Chapter 279 of the Laws of 1998 establishes a six year pilot program for a single audit of State transportation assistance. The new law requires municipalities and public authorities expending in excess of $100,000 in State transportation funds in any fiscal year and which are required to have a federal single audit to prepare a "schedule of state transportation assistance expended" and have such schedule audited for the period corresponding to the federal single audit. The law requires DOT to promulgate rules and regulations to implement the pilot program, and allows additional expenses incurred in connection with the audit to be chargeable as an indirect expense to the State program. Finally, Chapter 279 requires DOT to provide an annual report to the Governor and the Legislature, beginning in 2000, on the benefits and costs associated with the single audit program. Examples of programs affected by this new law include State transit operating assistance, snow & ice control on state highways, aviation grants, the Industrial Access Program, CHIPS, and Marchiselli.

F. Department of Motor Vehicles

Transfer of Vehicles, Welfare-to-Work

(A.9363-A, Jacobs; Chapter 429, Laws of 1998)

Among the challenges facing states in complying with federal welfare-to-work requirements is improving the transportation linkage between job applicants/employees and places of employment. Many job opportunities are available in central cities and downtown areas where public transit is easily accessible. However, jobs are growing in suburban locations where transit service may not be as accessible. Limitations on transit routes and service hours also can create a challenge in linking workers with jobs having swing shifts or evening hours. Additionally, one in four families nationwide receiving public assistance live in rural areas, and according to some, a disproportionate share of non-metropolitan residents reside in poverty-level households. Many of these rural areas either lack or have limited access to public transit services.

Public transit service providers play a pivotal role in making this connection, and many public transportation authorities in New York State have been working to address welfare-to-work needs. The establishment of vanpools and shuttle services are two examples of how public transit operators are attempting to provide expanded services. However, there will be circumstances where public transit may not be the best answer. The Legislature, therefore, enacted Assembly bill 9363-A (Jacobs, Chapter 429, Laws of 1998), to expand the transportation options of low-income workers.

Prior to the passage of this act, registered motor vehicle dealers were prohibited from transferring uninspected motor vehicles to any person other than another registered dealer. This precluded welfare-to-work programs with the capacity to repair vehicles to meet safety inspection standards from having access to these vehicles. The new law authorizes registered motor vehicle dealers to transfer, for no remuneration, uninspected motor vehicles to welfare-to-work programs. Once the vehicles pass inspection, are insured, and are registered with DMV, low-income workers will have another option to get to work.

Registration of Agricultural Vehicles

(A.10954, Rules/Bragman; Chapter 642, Laws of 1998)

Under the Vehicle and Traffic Law, a farmer engaged in food production (such as crops, dairy cattle, or livestock) is authorized to register vehicles used to transport his or her commodities, supplies, or for personal use, as an "agricultural truck" for a lower registration fee. As the agricultural industry evolves, more and more farmers have diversified their operations in order to keep their farms economically viable. A growing sector of the industry has been horticulture, including such agricultural commodities as nursery stock, ornamental shrubs, and ornamental trees and flowers.

Chapter 642 of the Laws of 1998 extends the eligibility of vehicles to be registered as "agricultural trucks" to include those vehicles used to transport horticultural products and supplies produced or used by the registrant.

Ambulance Services

(A.11282, Rules/Silver; Chapter 382, Laws of 1998)

Federal law mandates that states enact laws requiring operators of commercial motor vehicles to hold valid commercial drivers' licenses. "Commercial motor vehicles" are defined to include vehicles designed or used to transport passengers which have a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 26,000 pounds.

However, federal regulations regarding requirements for commercial driver's licenses (CDLs) provide an exemption for firefighters and other persons who operate commercial motor vehicles which are necessary to the preservation of life or property or the execution of emergency governmental functions. With this exemption, the Federal Highway Administration recognized that operators of emergency medical vehicles are vital links in obtaining necessary medical care for critically ill and injured people.

New York State regulations allow ambulance operators, including voluntary ambulance operators, to operate an ambulance with any class license other than a class DJ (junior driver's license), M (motorcycle driver's license) or MJ (junior motorcycle driver's license). However, the Vehicle and Traffic Law did not provide the same explicit exemption as the federal regulations. Chapter 382 of the Laws of 1998 clarifies that volunteer operators of ambulances which have a GVWR of more than 26,000 pounds are able to operate such vehicles with any class driver's license other than a class DJ, M or MJ license.

III. Public Hearings

Aggressive Drivers

Albany, January 27, 1998

Incidents of aggressive driving, referred to as "road rage" in its more extreme forms, appear to have grown in the past few years, receiving the widespread attention of the public. Aggressive driving manifests itself through acts such as tailgating, flashing of headlights, reckless driving, deliberately obstructing other vehicles, verbal abuse and, at the more extreme end, physical assault.

Given the dangers posed by aggressive drivers, and the possibility of death or serious physical injury arising from incidents of aggressive driving, the Assembly Transportation Committee conducted a public hearing to examine the nature and scope of aggressive driving, as well as options to appropriately address it.

The Committee heard testimony from diverse groups, including the New York State Police, the NYS Thruway Authority, DMV, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, the NYS Chapter of the American Automobile Association, and the Alliance of American Insurers.

Lowering the BAC Level to .08%

New York City, April 23, 1998

Combining the drinking of alcoholic beverages with the driving of motor vehicles is a serious public health and safety problem. Drunk drivers inflict personal suffering on their victims, and impose significant social and economic costs on society.

Beginning with the enactment in the early 1980s of the first set of reforms to its drunk driving statutes, New York State has been successful in reducing the number of alcohol-related crashes (by 54%), increasing the number of DWI convictions annually (by 47%), and reducing both the likelihood of being involved in an alcohol-related crash and of being killed by a drunk driver (by 69% and 63% respectively).

The law in New York State deems a driver to be driving while intoxicated "per se" if such driver operates a motor vehicle while his or her blood alcohol concentration is at or above the 0.10% legal limit. In order to assist in its review of proposals to lower the per se level for DWI from the current 0.10% to 0.08%, including the practical effects and policy implications, the Assembly Standing Committees on Transportation, Codes, and Alcoholism and Substance Abuse conducted a public hearing. The Committees heard testimony from a wide range of witnesses including DMV, the New York State Police, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, various advocacy groups including MADD and the NYS Advocates for Highway Safety, the NYS Chapter of the American Automobile Association, and the NYS Medical Society.

IV. Outlook for 1999

The Committee will review and analyze a number of issues during the 1999 Legislative Session. Highway safety issues to be explored continue to include drunk driving initiatives, as well as other driver issues such as distraction, drowsiness, inattention, and aggression; medical impairments; pedestrian safety; and, road design. Work also will continue on legislation to improve highway safety through driver licensing issues such as vision tests and graduated licensing.

The enactment of the federal Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) provides opportunities for New York State to continue its work toward a safer transportation system. TEA-21 also requires states to enact certain laws in order to avoid loss of federal highway aid. The Committee will review the opportunities and requirements of the federal law during 1999.

As always, the Committee will examine additional issues brought to its attention by legislators, staff, and, most importantly, the people of the State of New York.







Bills Reported With or Without Amendment

To Floor; not returning to Committee




To Ways and Means




To Codes




To Rules



To Judiciary





Bills having Committee Reference Changed

To Consumer Affairs Committee




To Veterans' Affairs Committee




To Codes Committee




To Local Governments Committee




To Environmental Conservation Committee





Senate Bills Substituted or Recalled










Bills Defeated in Committee




Bills Never Reported, Held in Committee




Bills Never Reported, Died in Committee




Bills Having Enacting Clauses Stricken




Motion to Discharge Lost








Total Number of Committee Meetings Held








A.668-A Seminerio
S.3457-A Velella

Would reduce penalties for trucks exceeding permitted weight limits in the New York metropolitan region

Vetoed, Memo # 1381

A.1495-B Bragman
S.5689-A Alesi

Requires DMV to note an ignition interlock requirement imposed by any court statewide, on the operator's license of the person so sentenced.

Chapter 359

A.5506-A Hochberg
S.2521-A Lachman

Prohibits the possession of an open container of alcoholic beverages with the intent to consume, in a motor vehicle.

Chapter 153

A.5869-C Connelly
S.3449-C Marchi

Increases the amount of pilotage tariff for the Sandy Hook pilots, and provides a discount on tariffs for frequent users of the Port of New York/New Jersey.

Chapter 591

A.6517-A Matusow
S.5584-A Oppenheimer

Authorizes a residential permit parking system in the town of Harrison, Westchester County

Chapter 265

A.7656 Rules/ Canestrari
S.4396 Spano

Increases the amount of pilotage fees for the Hudson River pilots.

Chapter 649

A.7756-D Rules (Gantt)
S.6910-A Johnson

Makes changes regarding railroad bridge inspections

Chapter 455

A.8186-A Rules (Perry)
S.4256-A Johnson

Authorizes municipal airports to participate in the OGS contract for the removal of fuel tanks

Chapter 161

A.8614-A Rules (Morelle)
S.5703-A Dollinger

Expands the crime of criminal trespass in the 3rd degree to include entering a railroad right-of-way or rail yard in Monroe County

Chapter 428

A.8815-B DiNapoli
S.7602 Johnson

Provides additional safety measures relating to the operation of ice cream trucks

Chapter 267

A.8908 Parment
S.5919 Present

Authorizes an increase in the maximum speed limit on a small portion of State Route 17 to 65 mph

Chapter 76

A.8915-A Little
S.6011-A Stafford

Designates a bridge on State Route 3 in Franklin County as the "Mayor Frank Ratigan Memorial Bridge"

Chapter 238

A.9164 Stephens
S.6120 Leibell

Designate a bridge crossing the Croton River as the "Borden Bridge"

Chapter 240

A.9361 Hochberg
S.6231 Velella

Postpones until March 1, 1999, the requirement that all replacement inflatable restraint systems be certified according to certain standards

Chapter 78

A.9363-A Jacobs
S.5918-A Holland

Allows motor vehicle dealers to transfer uninspected vehicles to welfare-to-work programs

Chapter 429

A.9495-A Hochberg
S.6028-A Spano

Authorizes a residential permit parking system in the village of Tuckahoe, Westchester County

Chapter 239

A.9875 Seaman
S.6492 Maziarz

Provides for the exchange of State and county highways in Niagara County

Chapter 249

A.9915 Gromack
S.6884 Holland

Clarifies that the telephone number printed on school buses include the area code

Chapter 94

A.10423-A Tokasz
S.6848-A Johnson

Extends the authorization for DMV to accept payment by credit card for four years

Chapter 129

A.10765-A Rules (Tocci)
S.2550-E Johnson

Provides for the certification of motor vehicle accident prevention courses

Chapter 290

A.10808 Rules (Gantt)
S.6403 Stafford

Extends the time for the removal of an illegally-erected sign or display, allows maintenance of advertising signs, and limits permits for controlling vegetation to 250 annually

Chapter 643

A.10912 Rules (Gantt)
S.7665 Fuschillo

Eliminates provision for State regulations regarding accessible pedestrian crosswalks and sidewalks which are not needed due to federal law

Chapter 278

A.10914 Rules (Gantt)
S.6992 Johnson

Enables DOT to establish a single audit pilot program

Chapter 279

A.10927 Rules (Bragman)
A.6524 DeFrancisco

Authorizes the construction of the "Baldwinsville Bypass" for truck traffic

Chapter 191

A.10929 Rules (Gantt)
A.6849 Johnson

Would change the adoption date from October 1 to April 1 for the five year capital, financing and performance plans for RGRTA, CDTA, and the CNYRTA

Chapter 606

A.10930 Rules (Gantt)
S.7427 Johnson

Repeals a statutory provision relating to standards for the use of used oil for dust control

Chapter 280

A.10944 Rules (Gantt)
S.5231 Maziarz

Eliminates requirement that certificates of termination or modification of easement be filed with the Department of State

Chapter 165

A.10954 Rules (Bragman)
S.4888 Kuhl

Would allow certain trucks used for the transportation of horticultural products be registered as agricultural vehicles

Chapter 642

A.10964 Rules (Weisenberg)
S.7494 Fuschillo

Designates a portion of the Meadowbrook Parkway as the "Norman J. Levy Memorial Highway"

Chapter 215

A.10970 Rules (Canestrari)
S.7515 Johnson

Would authorize the operation of tandem trailers on Interstate 787 between Thruway Interchange 23 and the Port of Albany

Chapter 608

A.10978 Rules/ Destito

Transfers certain portions of highways in Oneida County to the State of New York.

Chapter 614

A.11054 Rules (Gantt)
S.7652 Rules

Extends the authority of the Thruway Authority to issue variable rate bonds for two years

Chapter 133

A.11170 Rules (Bragman)
S.6385-A DeFrancisco

Authorizes the operation of tandem trucks within a distance of 1.6 miles of the Berkshire Spur of the Thruway, provided that DOT deems such operation safe

Chapter 247

A.11282 Rules (Silver)
S.7763 Hannon

Permits the operation of ambulances owned by ambulance services and voluntary ambulance services to be operated with any class license except junior licenses

Chapter 382

A.11373 Rules (Lafayette)
S.7811 Velella

Would modify the program establishing a computerized database of motor vehicle insurance

Chapter 509






A.85 Feldman
S.1313 Velella

Would provide administrative remedies for persons whose motor vehicles are wrongfully towed within the City of New York.

A.146 Hoyt
S.1799 Volker

Would clarify that pedestrian and bicycle projects are eligible for Marchiselli funding.

A.521-A Lafayette
S.5304 Levy

Would require that vehicle insurers receive notification of an impounded stolen motor vehicle, when the owner thereof cannot be located.

A.522 Lafayette
S.607 Levy

Would require New York State DMV to charge the same fees for police inquiries from another state as such other state's DMV charges New York police agencies.

A.1494 Bragman
S.7676 Johnson

Would authorize the use of combination distinctive disabled license plates

A.1504 Harenberg

Would require DMV to provide a space on drivers' licenses and non-driver i.d. cards for information on who to contact in the event of an emergency.

A.1994 Bragman
S.1540 DeFrancisco

Would exempt certain fire corporations from the payment of motor vehicle registration fees.

A.2165 Dinowitz
S.1414 Velella

Would require timely repayment of parking violations fines in the event a judgment is overturned on appeal.

A.2886-B Glick

Would expand the number of retail stores required to set aside a portion of parking spaces for the disabled.

A.3080 Glick

S.606 Levy

Would raise the age of persons sitting in the rear of a motor vehicle who are required to wear a seat belt from the age of ten to the age of sixteen.

A.3217-A Wertz
S.2070-A Marchi

Would authorize the issuance of distinctive Foreign Organization license plates

A.3757-B Lafayette
S.2310-B Goodman

Would require motor vehicle repair shops to provide certain information regarding work guarantees, and establish time limits for complaints about repair work

A.3969-C Glick
S.6872-A Padavan

Would authorize New York City to establish speed limits between 15 and 25 mph on designated streets equipped with traffic calming devices

A.4012 McEneny

Would require owners of off-street parking spaces to post a notice of towing conditions for unauthorized parking.

A.4178 DiNapoli
S.609 Levy

Would require motor vehicle rental companies to provide portable mechanical devices for use by disabled drivers.

A.4422-A Lafayette

Would require motor vehicle repair shops to notify customers of their right to inspect repair work.

A.4457-B Tonko
S.1812-B Farley

Would direct the NYS Thruway Authority to establish a specific services signs demonstration program.

A.4566-A Glick

Would require DMV to include information regarding wheelchairs in the Department's annual summary of motor vehicle accidents.

A.4567 Glick

Would authorize a public outreach campaign to educate the public about child safety seats and seat belts, and correct installation and use

A.5285-A Schimminger
S.3573-B Alesi

Would require courts to suspend boating privileges of persons convicted of DWI, and allow courts to suspend the driving privileges of persons convicted of BWI.

A.5583 Tokasz

Would require Class One railroads to provide on-board, chemical flush toilets

A.5744-B Hochberg
S.6217 Spano

Would increase penalties for operating a commercial motor vehicle illegally on a parkway.

A.5877-D Tonko

S.4114-B Levy

Would require DMV to implement a senior highway user assistance plan.

A.6695-A Glick

Would require motor vehicles to yield the right-of-way to pedestrians, and would require the Governor's Traffic Safety Committee to establish a public outreach program on pedestrian safety.

A.6803-B Weisenberg

Would require the Governor's Traffic Safety Committee to study the effects of cellular telephones on highway safety

A.7877-A Rules/ Glick

Would expand the responsibility of the State Public Transportation Safety Board.

A.8028 Rules/ Bragman
S.5698 Alesi

Would prohibit the placement of advertising on school buses.

A.8065 Rules/ Bragman
S.5457 Levy

Would require the deposit of fine moneys for operation of a motor vehicle outside the terms of a conditional use license to the appropriate STOP-DWI program.

A.8119 Rules/ Brodsky
S.5735 Spano

Would direct the NYS Thruway Authority to discontinue the Yonkers toll barrier.

A.9176-D Schimminger
S.7207-B Larkin

Would require persons under age 14 to wear helmets when riding horses on public highways, and providers of horses to provide helmets and safety information to riders

A.10065-A Luster
S.6728-A Seward

Would direct DMV to establish safety standards for bicycle and in-line skate helmets

A.10092-A Robach
S.6718-A Spano

Would authorize the issuance of distinctive license plates bearing the phrase "Our Children, Our Future"

A.10315-B Fessenden
S.6877-B Nozzolio

Would create the Route 90 scenic corridor

A.10373-A Hoyt
S.6972-A Maziarz

Would establish the "New York State High Speed Rail Commission"

A.10424 Gantt
S.7620 Rules

Would clarify the law regarding the prohibition of the use of radar and laser detectors

A.10704 Rules (Bragman)
S.7196 Farley

Would authorize the use of the words "Fire Police" on certain vehicles

A.10803 Rules (McEneny)
S.7440 Breslin

Would authorize a residential permit parking system in the City of Albany

A.11121-A Rules (Barraga)

Would designate a bridge in the hamlet of Centereach, Suffolk County as the "Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge"


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